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Astronomical Picture of the Day subsection

Here is NASA's Astro Picture of the day!


Astronomical Images from

To observe you need light!

The famous Hertzsprung Russel Diagram

Current status of the deep space network

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Center of our Galaxy... a giant BLACK hole?

Swirling around the dark mass beneath them, this moving animation
shows how scientists used the stars to identify an enormous black hole at the centre of our galaxy.
Researchers monitored the orbit of the stars circling the centre of the Milky Way
to map out the size of the phenomenon, which is four million times heavier than the sun.
Over 16 years they tracked 28 stars and determined the black hole, known as Sagittarius A*,
was influencing their movements.

Read more:

Tracking Stars Orbiting the Milky Way's Central Black Hole

Sequences showing the real images acquired with the VLT, and 2D and 3D animations illustrating the motion of the stars around the black hole at the centre of the Galaxy. 00:10 - zoom and pan the colour image obtained with the VLT; 00:56- zoom in real images of the galaxies, starting from a wide angle view, all the way to the sequence of real images showing the stars orbiting the black hole at the centre; 01:30- fade from the real data to a 3D animation of the stars around the black hole; 02:00- 3D animation showing the S2 star orbiting the black hole 02:35- 2D animation with all the measured stars, reproducing the real observations.

Credit: ESO/ S. Gillessen, R. Genzel In a 16-year long study, using several of ESO's flagship telescopes, a team of German astronomers has produced
the most detailed view ever of the surroundings of the monster lurking at our Galaxy's heart —
a supermassive black hole. The research has unravelled the hidden secrets of this tumultuous region
by mapping the orbits of almost 30 stars, a five-fold increase over previous studies.
One of the stars has now completed a full orbit around the black hole.

Credit: ESO/ S. Gillessen, R. Genzel source:

Enormous Structures Might be Hiding in the Center of our Galaxy

This annotated artist's conception illustrates our current understanding of the structure of the Milky Way galaxy.
Image Credit: NASA

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Let's start with:
The Night Skies Network. Try this site.
If one of the over 200 channels is in red it is broadcasting.
Click on it and watch a live video and audio feed with interactive messaging. Great fun day or night:

An effort to recriut the younger generation to astronomy

Click here for The latest GOOGLE SEARCH FOR ASTRONOMY


A new way to view the Milky Way! It's!

Another way to view the MOON! Zoom in with near side!

Check out Panning our galaxy!

And here Sky viewer with a google like interface

Another one is Stellarium open source planetarium for computer

Here is a website dedicated A website to dispaly popular Astronomical both visually and entertainally

A great Individual Photographic effort It's!

Clicking on the info button (the i icon) at will produce constellation stick figures, the ecliptic, and the names of some DSOs, the bright stars, and the planets.

A new resource for Astronomy information! It's Astronomy!!!

Here for a competitor to Google SKY..... For ASTRONOMY WIKI AND INTERACTIVE MAP!

Here is Microsoft's WORLD WIDE TELESCOPE!!!!

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This section for REPORTS, BLOGS FORUMS

From Sky and Telescope Magazine Behind the

From Astronomy Magazine it's Bob Berman's Blog site Sky Man

From the denver science musuem David Grinspoon's site Funky

An online blog From ABC Media network

Here is something different Destination space's Chat room

Click here for Portal to the Universe

And here for Universe Today.COM

A companion site to Universe today is!

And another companion site Know the

Here is a Video Blog site ...!

A blog site Hubble site for the citizen to get involved

Another site is Hubbles Universe Unfiltered"

Yet another is Hubbles Deep Astronomy

Hubble site's Hubbles list of Blogs

A video Montage of Cherry spring State (PA) state park
A favorite for Northeastern ANd Mid Atlantic VIewers


Click here for Large Binocular Telescope"

And here for Technical report on the mini galaxy in Hercules

Click here for A report on redshifts and Halton ARP

Here is a report on Telescope Arms Race

Here is the National Science Foundation's Advancing Astronomy in the coming decade(2010-2019):Opportunities and Challenges

Here is the NSF's advisory committe's report: New Worlds , New Horizons in Astroonomy and AstroPhysics

The (a)Periodic Table of Messier Objects

In May 2013 I finished photographing (using an astronomical CCD camera and a refractor)
all 110 Messier objects, a project that took about 11 months.
I wanted to make a poster out of the 110 photos, and after a little thinking I realized that there
is another famous collection of objects (which also number a little over 100) which are conventionally
displayed in a chart divided into categories. So with that in mind I attempted to create an arrangement
of the Messier Objects inspired by the Periodic Table. Below is the result.


And here is Cosmic

This one from Astronomy Magazine

This one from Astronomy

And from Astromart

Threads from Cloudy nights

Amatuer Astronomy From Phill

AND a personal blog Jonathan's Space Report

Here is Our Solar System the Sun and its Planets
from The North American Coalation for Maintaing Mother Earth

Solar system - The Sun and 8 planets

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This section for the "zoo" family of webpages.....

A slightly less ambitious project is The Milky Way Project aims to sort
and measure our galaxy, the Milky Way.
Initially we're asking you to help us find and draw bubbles in beautiful infrared
data from the Spitzer Space Telescope.

And a complimentary site is... Moon

You can assist in finding... SUPERNOVAS!

And You can assist in finding Exo planets!!!

Here is Old

And another one... Solar Storm Watch!

And here for Merging galaxies!

Another one searching for super novas!

You can go with the Pluto Mission with.. ICE HUNTERS (for pluto!)

Here is ICE hunters demo!

And the science of ICE Hunters Science

AND A tutorial for ICE HUNTERS

How about Writing messages in Galaxies!

A new project is Sea floor explorer

Another one is Cyclone center

Yet another We're on a collision course with the Andromeda Galaxy.
Help researchers understand the awesomeness of the Andromeda galaxy, because one day we'll be in it...

YEt another new one is Space Warps

Help the zoo to Explore mars!

The Home page of Planet four

Another new project is: disk detective find exo-planets!

Radio Galaxies!

This site for a distributive effort to classify Galaxies...

The Galaxy Zoo's FORUM

THe Galaxy Zoo's Blog

And Galaxy Zoo's General Information

This is Galaxy Zoo's list of LINKS

This is galaxy zoo's Cyclone center blog page

Another new zoo project Sun!

Yet another Zoo [roject the ASteroid zoo

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This section for Observing Auroras.

This section for auroral observations

NOAA DOES Satellitte Auroal MAPS

Here is the forecast for auroral activity Here for Current Auroral activity

AND HERE .... Auroral forecasts....

Click here for The Aurora Sentry!!!!

Here is a new service for Aurora alerts! It's Space Weather Phone - Auroral alert system

And here for another astro community effort

Here is Curtis' Aurora resources Click Here!

This site for real time resouces!Click here

Here for MTU aurora weather Click here

Here for ICSTARS resources Click here

This site for For paricle breeze images

Auroras from early 2012

Aurora 2012 from Christian M�lhauser on Vimeo.

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The Observatories section has been moved to it's own page!

Click here!

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This section is to monitor the sun!!!!

Click here for a page of The Latest real time images of the sun

Click here for The Earth's DAYLIGHT MAP From the sun!

This site for Solar observations

Here are images from nasa Images from JSC nasa

Here is Google

Here is NOAA's recent x-ray plots of the sun!

Didier Favre's images portray the prominence activity quite well!!!


This section for observing the sun

Here is the current Soho EIT IMAGE

The Current Alpha Patrol Network Image

For those who like to watch the progress of these storms the following sites are useful:

Today's Space Weather updated every 5 minutes

- NOAA's Space EnvironmentCenter:)

Solar-Terrestrial Activity

(daily postings with occasional
interim updates for major storms)

NOAA's Current Solar Magnetic Index, Speed, and Pressure Dials:

Tyrell Corporation's

Solar Storm Monitor

Yet another site to observe the sun: Locheed Solar Observatory

This site is recommended by Art Bell soho's solar observatory

The New Jersey Institute of Technology solar observatory NJIT Solar observatory

Caltech solar observatory Caltech Solar observation page

Here is a sun observing site Sun Earth Day

Here is It's Solar

Here is the naval research lab site Lasco site

Here is Soho's Self updating solar observations

Click here for Solar

A new online It's

also it's Solar

Real time Images from SOHO

Observing in a diferent frequency NSO/GONG in H Alpha Network Monitoring

six hour GEOS x-ray flux monitor

And Soloar Soft's Latest Events

Animation of Looping Promminces on our Sun on August 20, 2013

Animation of looping prominences on the western limb of the Sun on August 20, 2013. Credit and copyright: Michel Collart. This close-up movie of looping, dancing prominences on the Sun looks like something you�d see from one of the spacecraft
we have studying the Sun, such as the Solar Dynamics Observatory. However, the images were taken from Earth by
amateur astronomer Michel Collart from France. He was able to capture incredible detail (see his list of equipment below)
of this region on the Sun�s western limb, and in a series of 120 frames,
shows a lot of activity taking place on the morning of August 20, 2013.

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Real time Images from Space

Here is space weather's Fly by checker

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This section for Infrared astronomy

Click here for Infrared Science Archive

Here is the sombreo galaxy in the infra red!

Saturn's North Pole Hexagon in infrared

Here is the first Infrared Photo:

Click here for Institute for Astronomy in Hawa11

Here is the first press release First light for infrared

Cosmic beacons reveal the Milky Way’s ancient core

Astronomers have discovered that the central 2,000 light-years within the Milky Way Galaxy hosts an ancient population of stars.
By Leibniz Institute for Astrophysics, Potsdam, Germany | Published: Friday, April 22, 2016

The plane of our galaxy as seen in infrared light from the WISE satellite.
The bulge is a distinct component in the central part of the galaxy and rotates cylindrically.
An ancient population, which does not exhibit cylindrical rotation, has been detected in the inner Milky Way.
This population is estimated to be 1 percent of the mass of the bulge, and it is likely to have been one of the
first parts of the Milky Way to form. NOAO/AURA/NSF/AIP/A. Kunder

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This section for Amateur Astronomers

Here is a great resource for amateurs Wikipedia's list of Astronomical catalogues

CLick here for Weird World

Instead of an Internet Cafe we have: The Astronomy Cafe

Here is another great individual effort It's David Rutledge's Astro Page

Robert Holmes' Great Amatuer website(now professional) and observatory In Illonois

And his Links page

AND A MAGAZINE Sky and telescope's website

And the other magazine Astronomy Magazine

Here is Attic Bluffs Observatory Williamsburg, VA

Welcome to Steve Shellman's amateur astronomy page. I am a social scientist studying political conflict and terrorism
by day and an amateur astronomer and astro-imager by night. Here you'll find some of my latest images,
information on my equipment, observatory, and other resources. Thanks for stopping by.
All of the images on this site were taken by me - good, bad, or indifferent.

Yet another Amatuer site is: Astrophotography By Ken Crawford

Here is the site for International Spacewatch Website

The president of the Main Line Commodore User's group is a member of the Delaware Amatuer Astronomers

And here is David Rutledge's LInks page

Main page of The association of Lumar and planetary observers of Japan

Here are links for Youth in Astronomy

Here is Youth In Astronomy

And here is Dr. Robert Stencel Of Denver University

This is a student site for Hubble observations! Latest Hubble Pictures

Here is the main Students Exploring and Developing Space

Here is the web site for a club From the country of Chile

And the Amateur Mark Buie's webpage fromt he Saouth WEst Research Institute In Boulder, CO!

Organizations for the light pollution problem!

Here is another important organization it's The international Dark Sky orginazation

To assist the IDA is EARTH HOUR

AND here is Globe at

As a piece of information, for the beginner about the Limitation of human senses
Here is a graph that illustrates why astronomers construct telescopes
to see outsde of human ranges. It also makes me think that some animals experience the world very differently.

Here is digital imaging from Richard Berry His main page

And a picture recomended by the dvaa! Imaging with Orion's StarShoot Pro
6-Megapixel Bayer-Array CCD Camera

University of Pennsylvania Department of Physics U of PENN Astronomy and Physics

Here is the Hitch Hiker Guide to Astronomy!!!

This site for the Astronomical Society of Harrisburg PA

Here is the web page for The Naylor Observatory of the Harrisburg Astronomical Soceity

Here are other great independent efforts

A list of Astronomy clubs bringing the
wonders of the universe to the public

Here is....... Ozor's Online Astronomy Club

Here is page specifying Philadelphia Area regional Astro Events

Here is the New Philadelphia Science Fest

CLick here for the Website for Astronomy camp in Arizona!

Here is Damien peach's effort:

And His Website: damian Peach's Website

Jupiter by Damien Peach

Deep Sky Videos From Brady Haran

This section for the Texas Star Party

Here is The Texas Star Party

Here for The Fort Davis site

Here for Prude Ranch Site

This section for Amatuer Webcams in Astronomy

Click here for Web Cams in Amatuer Astronomy

Astronomy video report from


An excellent personal effort Amatuer Astro

Here is Ned Wrights Cosmological Tutorial

And click here There's another good one, by Jay Reynolds Freeman

And here Also worthwhile

You can click here For some more terminology

This section for Amateur Astronomers

Here is some thing for Amateur astronomers It's a Telescope Limiting Magnitude Calculator

From the DVAA's June 2, 2012 Meeting's lecture 3d animated MOONDUST WEBPAGE

Here is a resource for Building your own telescopes Webster Telescopes!

this is a resource for Digital astrophotography"

Local Astronomers groups

Weather Observation conditions From Metroblue for Willow grove PA!

Websites recomended by DVAA members on the e-List

Here is University of Pennsylvania's Center for particle cosmology


Here is Scope Louis Berman's site

A new class of objects? Or Alien Beacon?

Click here for E. E. Barnard on line

Click here for The Winer Observatory Near Nashville, TN

Another site for Amateur Astronomers is the Astronomical Leaugue The Astronomical Leaugue

Here is an amateur site for requsting your own astronomical Observation it's

The International Space Station Amateur Space Telescope

Here is a great site for computer amateur's Massive HOT LINKS FOR AMATEURS

The American Astronomical Society Has a site:


For you Amatuer Astronomers, Here is the

The Hipparcos Catalog with utilities!

For amatuer astronomers, here is an individual Observatory effort the Braeside Observatory in Arizona

For's regional Seeing and transparency forecasts!

For amteur Astronomers it's Gary Seronik

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This section for the Hubble Telescope

FROM NASA THE location of the Hubble telscope above the earth!


Hubble's Reflection Nebula!

A 3D model of the Homunculus Nebula in Eta Carinae � some 7,500 light-years from Earth

A double-lobed star explosion seen by the Hubble Space Telescope
has a more complicated backstory than astronomers ever imagined,
according to a 3D model of the ill-fated star's eruption.
A 3D model of the Homunculus Nebula in Eta Carinae � some 7,500 light-years from Earth
� shows the aftermath of the burst that gave rise to the nebula


The WhirlPool galaxy!

The sharpless 2-106 Nubulea

Hubble's Celestial Snow Angel The star forming region known as Sharpless 2-106 is a beautiful nebula
of gas being shot out away from the center area where a new star is being born.
We've released a new video at +Deep Astronomy, where +Tony Darnell beautifully narrates
the science behind the beautiful imagery from +Hubble Space Telescope and Subaru Telescope.

Hubble's View of the Polar Ring of Arp 230

This image shows Arp 230, also known as IC 51, observed by the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope.
Arp 230 is a galaxy of an uncommon or peculiar shape, and is therefore part of the Atlas of Peculiar Galaxies
produced by Halton Arp. Its irregular shape is thought to be the result of a violent collision with another galaxy sometime in the past.
The collision could also be held responsible for the formation of the galaxy’s polar ring.
The outer ring surrounding the galaxy consists of gas and stars and rotates over the poles of the galaxy.
It is thought that the orbit of the smaller of the two galaxies that created Arp 230 was perpendicular to the disk of the second,
larger galaxy when they collided. In the process of merging the smaller galaxy would have been ripped apart and may have formed the
polar ring structure astronomers can observe today.

Hubble Catches a Dusty Spiral in Virgo (NGC 4206)

This magnificent new image taken with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope shows the edge-on spiral galaxy NGC 4206,
located about 70 million light-years away from Earth in the constellation of Virgo.
Captured here are vast streaks of dust, some of which are obscuring the central bulge,
which can just be made out in the center of the galaxy. Towards the edges of the galaxy,
the scattered clumps, which appear blue in this image, mark areas where stars are being born.
The bulge, on the other hand, is composed mostly of much older, redder stars, and very little star formation takes place.

Astronomers discover colossal ‘super spiral’ galaxies

A huge galaxy with the moniker SDSS J094700.08+254045.7 stands as one of the biggest and brightest super spirals.
The mega-galaxy’s starry diss and spiral arms stretch about 320,000 light-years across, or more than three times the breadth of the Milky Way.
Image credit: SDSS.

This super spiral, catalogued as 2MASX J08542169+0449308, contains two galactic nuclei, instead of just the usual one,
and thus looks like two eggs frying in a pan. Image credit: SDSS.

This image shows a super spiral designated 2MASX J16014061+2718161, and it also contains the double nuclei.
Image credit: SDSS.

Hubble captures a low surface brightness galaxy

This striking NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope image captures the galaxy UGC 477,
located just over 110 million light-years away in the constellation of Pisces (The Fish).
UGC 477 is a low surface brightness (LSB) galaxy. First proposed in 1976 by Mike Disney,
the existence of LSB galaxies was confirmed only in 1986 with the discovery of Malin 1.
LSB galaxies like UGC 477 are more diffusely distributed than galaxies such as Andromeda and the Milky Way.
With surface brightnesses up to 250 times fainter than the night sky, these galaxies can be incredibly difficult to detect.
Image credit: ESA/Hubble & NASA. Acknowledgement: Judy Schmidt.

Hubble sees a glittering sphere of stars in the Small Magellanic Cloud

Image credit: ESA/Hubble & NASA. Acknowledgement: Judy Schmidt. This NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope image reveals the simple beauty of NGC 339,
a massive intermediate age star cluster in the southern constellation of Tucana (The Toucan).
NGC 339 is part of the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC), a dwarf galaxy that lies around
200,000 light-years away from us. Along with our own galaxy, the Milky Way, the SMC is one of a
collection of neighbouring galaxies known as the Local Group.

Hubble captures a birthday bubble

The Bubble Nebula, also known as NGC 7653, is an emission nebula located 8,000 light-years away
in the constellation Cassiopeia. This stunning new image was observed by the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope
to celebrate its 26th year in space. Click the image for a full-size view.
Image credit: NASA, ESA, Hubble Heritage Team.

Hubble Images a Dusty Galaxy, Home to an Exploding Star

The galaxy pictured here is NGC 4424, located in the constellation of Virgo. It is not visible with the naked eye
but has been captured here with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope. Although it may not be obvious from this image, NGC 4424 is in fact a spiral galaxy.
In this image it is seen more or less edge on, but from above, you would be able to see the arms
of the galaxy wrapping around its center to give the characteristic spiral form.

Young Mammoth Galaxy Cluster 12 Billion Lightyears Away

This handout image of the giant, active galaxy NGC 1275, obtained Aug. 21, 2008, was taken using the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope?s
Advanced Camera for Surveys in July and August 2006. PHOTO: NASA/GETTY IMAGES News of the recently discovered galaxy cluster came as a study published in Nature
revealed how black holes have been able to curb the formation of galaxies.
Low-energy supermassive black holes in a class known as red geysers may be suppressing star
formation by creating strong intergalactic winds, the report said.

Hubble resolves globular cluster in the Large Magellanic Cloud ESA / HUBBLE & NASA PRESS RELEASE 20 June 2016 Astronomy Now

Magnitude +10.4 globular cluster NGC 1854 (α=05h 09m 20.2s, δ=-68° 50′ 56″ J2000.0) was discovered in 1826 by James Dunlop.
It lies 135,000 light-years away in the Large Magellanic Cloud. This Hubble Space Telescope view is just 2.4 x 1.5 arcminutes in size.
Click the image for a larger version. Image credit: ESA/Hubble & NASA. This NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope image shows the globular cluster NGC 1854, a gathering of white and blue stars
in the southern constellation of Dorado (The Dolphinfish). NGC 1854 is located about 135,000 light-years away,
in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), one of our closest cosmic neighbours and a satellite galaxy of the Milky Way.

Hubble views the iridescent interior of a starburst galaxy ESA / HUBBLE & NASA PRESS RELEASE

Staburst galaxy NGC 1569 (α=4h 30.8m, δ=+64° 51′ J2000), 11 million light-years away in the constellation of Camelopardalis.
Image credit: ESA/Hubble & NASA, Aloisi, Ford. Acknowledgement: Judy Schmidt.

From the hubblesite

This is the Space telescope Main page

Here is Space Telescope's Hidden treasure project

Here is Hubble site !!!

AND Hubblesite's Additional resources page

Hubble site's is the Hubblesite's legacy archive

And here is Hubble site news release archive

A related site Tony Darnell's Deep

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This section for cosmic background experiments at the University of Pennsylvania

here is the mainpage for The Univesity of Pennsylvanis's UPEEN5 Home page

Here is the Home page for Cosmic Background MicroWave Experiments

This link for NASA's Microwave Anisotropy Probe Web Page

Here is the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotrophy Probe

And here for The University of Chicago Wayne Hu's Cosmology web page

And the University of Pennsylvania's cosmo;ogist Max Tegmark

Microscopic "Timers" Reveal Likely Source of Galactic Space Radiation

A cluster of massive stars seen with the Hubble Space Telescope. The cluster is surrounded by clouds of interstellar
gas and dust called a nebula. The nebula, located 20,000 light-years away in the constellation Carina,
contains the central cluster of huge, hot stars, called NGC 3603. Recent research shows that galactic cosmic rays
flowing into our solar system originate in clusters like these.
Like a July 4 fireworks display, a young, glittering collection of stars looks like an aerial burst.
The cluster is surrounded by clouds of interstellar gas and dust—the raw material for new star formation.
The nebula, located 20,000 light-years away in the constellation Carina, contains a central cluster of huge, hot stars, called NGC 3603.
This environment is not as peaceful as it looks. Ultraviolet radiation and violent stellar winds have blown out an enormous cavity
in the gas and dust enveloping the cluster, providing an unobstructed view of the cluster.
Most of the stars in the cluster were born around the same time but differ in size, mass, temperature, and color.
The course of a star's life is determined by its mass, so a cluster of a given age will contain stars in various stages of their lives,
giving an opportunity for detailed analyses of stellar life cycles. NGC 3603 also contains some of the most massive stars known.
These huge stars live fast and die young, burning through their hydrogen fuel quickly and ultimately ending their lives in supernova explosions.
Star clusters like NGC 3603 provide important clues to understanding the origin of massive star formation in the early, distant universe.
Astronomers also use massive clusters to study distant starbursts that occur when galaxies collide, igniting a flurry of star formation.
The proximity of NGC 3603 makes it an excellent lab for studying such distant and momentous events.
This Hubble Space Telescope image was captured in August 2009 and December 2009 with the Wide Field Camera 3 in both
visible and infrared light, which trace the glow of sulfur, hydrogen, and iron.

Credit: NASA, ESA, R. O'Connell (University of Virginia), F. Paresce (National Institute for Astrophysics, Bologna, Italy),
E. Young (Universities Space Research Association/Ames Research Center),
the WFC3 Science Oversight Committee, and the Hubble Heritage Team (STScI/AURA)

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Astronomy Magazines

SKY & TELESCOPE MAGAZINE,Sky & Telescope Publishing

Here is Sky and Telescope's Internet resource page

This page is a sub page of mine to access special Sky & Telescope services

This is sub page to link you to Large Telescope projects!

The Large Scope Resource page

This is Kalmbach Publishing's Sister Publication E A R T H

Astronomy Magazine has an alternate WEB PAGE Astronomy's magazines alternate web page

Here is Videos from Astronomy Magazine

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Headline news from Space!

THe supernova in M82

Possible Bright Supernova Lights Up Spiral Galaxy M61
by BOB KING on OCTOBER 30, 2014

An animation showing the new supernova in the galaxy M61 photographed on October 30, 2014,
paired with an older archive photo Credit: Ernesto Guido, Martino Nicolini, Nick Howes
I sat straight up in my seat when I learned of the discovery of a possible new supernova in the bright Virgo galaxy M61.
Since bright usually means close, this newly exploding star may soon become visible in smaller telescopes.
It was discovered at magnitude +13.6 on October 29th by Koichi Itagaki of Japan, a prolific hunter of supernovae
with 94 discoveries or co-discoveries to his credit.

Here is a page devoted to Space news Jonathan's Weekly Newsletter about Space

Click here for Science Headlines from NASA

From the Japanese space agency Earth rise from the MOON!

The higgs boson-- explained!

The Higgs Boson Explained from PHD Comics on Vimeo.

Click here for The African-European Radio Astronomy Platform

This group of galaxies has been nicknamed the "Cheshire Cat" because of its resemblance to a smiling feline.
Some of the cat-like features are actually distant galaxies whose light has been stretched and bent by the
large amounts of mass contained in foreground galaxies. This is an effect called "gravitational lensing,"
predicted by Einstein's Theory of General Relativity that is celebrating its 100th anniversary. X-rays from
Chandra show that the two "eye" galaxies and the smaller galaxies associated with them are slamming into one another
in a giant galactic collision.
X-ray: NASA/CXC/UA/J.Irwin et al; Optical: NASA/STSci


Visible, infrared, and X-ray light image of Kepler's supernova remnant (SN 1604) located about 13,000 light-years away.
Credit: NASA, ESA, R. Sankrit and W. Blair (Johns Hopkins University).

The Local Bubble is a 300-light-year long region that was carved out of the interstellar medium by supernovas
(Source: Science@NASA)

Home/News/New observations of FO Aquarii reveal strange behavior within this cannibalistic binary system

An artist’s rendition of cataclysmic variable binary system, in which a compact star pulls material off its companion and consumes it. FO Aquarii, a famous binary system comprised of a compact white dwarf stripping mass from a low-mass companion star, has decided to misbehave. When a National Science Foundation Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REU) student at the University of Notre Dame turned the school’s 0.8-meter telescope on these stars, she observed a pattern of behavior that has been, thus far, unexplainable. CREDIT: NASA


This image shows the two "bridges" that connect the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds. The white line traces the bridge of stars that flows between the two dwarf galaxies, and the blue line shows the gas. Image: V. Belokurov, D. Erkal and A. Mellinger

Small and Large Magellanic Clouds over Paranal Observatory Credit: ESO/J. Colosimo

The Large Magellanic Cloud. Image: Public Domain

A part of the Small Magellanic Cloud galaxy is dazzling in this image from NASA’s Great Observatories. The Small Magellanic Cloud is about 200,000 light-years way from our own Milky Way spiral galaxy. Credit: NASA.

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This section astro databases

Here is a A list of astro databases from Wikipedia

And here from from the astro league:Urban Program - Double and Variable Stars List

Here is the database

And here for Internet stellar


From the DVAA's E-list Webb Deepsky from Great Britian

Here is Webb Deep sky Catalog of the Brightest Planetary Nubulae in .pdf format

The web site for American Association of Variable Star Observers

Here is A database of Transit times from the Exoplanet Transit Database

To search data on Nasa's Planetary database of Space missions click here

A database for NASA"s IPAC Extragalactic DATABASE

Another databse The Simbad Astronomical database

Sternberg Astronomical Institute Supernova Catalogue
D.Yu.Tsvetkov, N.N.Pavlyuk, O.S.Bartunov, Yu.P.Pskovskii

This the The Hubble Legacy Archive!!

Click here for CANDELS:(Cosmic Assembly Near Infrared Deep Extragalatic Survey) A Cosmic Odyssey
CANDELS is a powerful imaging survey of the distant Universe being carried
out with two cameras on board the Hubble Space Telescope.

The Candels Informative about page

A database for Photograghs from The STScI Digitized Sky Survey

The AAVSO International High Energy Network

New Observing Program: Active Galactic Nuclei
By Al LAmpert, Delaware Valley Amateur Astronomers

On False and true double quasars

Catalogue of Bright Quasars and BL Lacertae Objects

For information on how to convert from redshift to distnce

Observing Variable Galaxies

The Million Quasars (Milliquas) Catalogue

Astronomers Create Largest-Ever Catalog Of Cosmic Voids

Welcome to the Public Cosmic Void Catalog

The Public void catalogs

The cosmic voids mapped by the team are not completely empty and do contain some luminous elliptical galaxies,
perhaps not unlike NGC 2768, an elliptical galaxy located in the northern constellation of Ursa Major (The Great Bear).
NGC 2768 appears here as a bright oval on the sky, surrounded by a wide, fuzzy cloud of material.
Credit: ESA/NASA, Hubble; Acknowledgement: Judy Schmidt

The Fornax Galaxy Cluster is one of the closest such groupings beyond our own Local Group of galaxies.
Credit: ESO and Digitized Sky Survey 2. Acknowledgment: Davide De Martin

slice of the new void map. Each red point is a galaxy and the blue circles show the locations
and rough sizes of voids. The blue spheres just show the typical sizes of the voids, but not the correct shapes.
Credit: Mao et al.

Quick links to the MAST PS1 Archive User Interface

Object Catalog Search

age Cutout Server

Casjobs SQL Server:

The Pan-STARRS1 data archive home page

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The Delaware Valley Amatuer Astronomers (DVAA)

Here is The Delaware Valley Amateur Astronomers

And here is The dvaa's events page!!

The DVAA's Remote observatory in the Pocono Mountains!

Observing conditions of the DVAA'S Remote Observatory

Webcam of the Remote Observatory field refreshes every 5 minutes

Sky Cam of the DVAA'as remote observatory

Accuweather of the general Pennsylvania area

Blue Mountain Vista Observatory Astrograph by Foster Systems

SQM READINGS at the Blue Mountain Observatory

Wind Conditions for the Pennsylvania Area

Click here for Observing conditions of the DVAA's remote observatory!

The DVAA's own Galaxiy main page

The DarkHorse Observatory

The DarkHorse Observatory in Kimberton, PA!

The Kimberton Sky CAM

Here is The dvaa's own Wayne reed's astro webpage

Here is Richard Steinberg's (DVAA Member) Home page with his picture collection organized!

Another one is The Ches mont Amateur Atronomers

Another one is The Bucks Mont astronomical association

And here is The Lehigh Valley Amateur Astronomers

A new local (to the Philadelphia area) Amateur Astronomer club Welcome to Coyle Field Astronomers!

And the Astro group Based at the Franklin Institute, the Rittenhouse Astronomical Society!

These folks create educational astronomy simulations: Contempory Laboratory Experinces in Astronomy (CLEA)

Another source for Astronomical Information: Astronomy HyperText Textbook

Good index of astronomy resources: Ames Area Amatuer Astronomers

Astronomy Education ResourcesAstroed

This is the main page for Astronomical quizes it's The Solar System Net

This section for CLEAR DARK SKY PREDICTIONS from

Here is the latest Clear dark sky forecast for the dvaa's observatory

The Parking lot of Francis E Walter's DAM

THE DVAA's Dark Sky Location

THe DVAA'S remote observatory

Here's the state site, which has directions and weather to Cherry Spring State Park

Click here for: Here's an interesting page about Cherry Spring from upstate astro:

And here for the BFSP site:

Here is the Starcount project!

Here is the DVAA's dark sky locations


Here is the Images by members of the dvaa gallery

Here is the web site of The Delmarva Stargazers!!

On March 13, 1998 the DVAA visited the Eastern College Astronomy
department, The following web site is their web site!
Eastern College's Astronomy department

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This section is the start for The National Virtual Observatory

A stunning animation of Melotte15

Stunning animation of The Heart Nubula

Wtch several videos about the Magellanic Clouds

Milky Way Center Region Mosaic Cool Pic, Pan and zoom. Milky Way Center Region Mosaic
Image S.Guisard / ESO, � St�phane Guisard "Los Cielos de Chile"

This image is a 1 billion pixel RVB mosaic of the galactic center region (340 millions pixels in each R,V and B color).
It shows the region spanning from Sagittarius (with the Milky Way center and M8/M20 area on the left) to Scorpius
(with colorful Antares and Rho Ophiuchus region on the right) and cat paw nebula (red nebula at the bottom).
This mosaic was assembled from 52 different sky fields made from 1200 individual images and 200 hours total exposure time,
final image size is 24000x14000 pixels. The images were taken with a SBIG STL camera + Takahashi FSQ106Ed f/3.6 telescope
and NJP160 mount from the clear skies of ESO Paranal Observatory in Chile.
This mosaic is one of the three parts of the ESO Gigagalaxy Zoom project together with this incredible whole sky mosaic image
by ESO/S.Brunier and this fantastic ESO mosaic image of the Lagoon nebula region.

Rochester Institute's Supernova virtual observatory

Here is Great Britain's ASTROGRID

Click here for The National Radio Astronomt Observatory

And click here for The NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database

Here is NASA's Eclipse Prediction web site

Here is a great library for AstroPhysics stuff it's Lawerence Livermore archive!!

Here is the link to the National Virtual Observatory

And here for National Teragrid!

Here is the site for The Sloan Digital Sky Survey

Here is another site for The Sloan Digital Sky Survey its


Here is the University of Chicago's interactive 3D view of the large scale structure of the universe.
Data courtesy of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe.

A great new site for A Website to display popular astronomy both
visually and entertainally

Here is The International Outer Planet Watch database(Main page)

AND the Image database section

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This section is for DEEP SKY

Any relation to the recent solar activity. Probably not but it is interesting that several anomalies have developed lately in our solar system.

Here is a High resolution picture the Sombreo Galaxy

And here for Goddard Space Flight Center's SkyMorph

Here is The daily report on our Galaxy

Another site is HEASARC Data Archive

Click here for The Hands on Universe

Just to be fair, I am including a site that claims That the BIG BANG IS WRONG

Here is Princeton University's Lograrithmic maps of the universe

And here for Princeton UNiversity's ASTRO Main page

Click here for Astronomy Education Review

Here is a great amatuer observatory it's The Panther observatory

Hubble Data Archive

This Colorado site is Center for astrophysics & Science

Here is CASA's Colorado's Relativity/Black hole simulator

Here is NASA's Horizon's online Ephemeris

WEBSTARS: Astrophysics in Cyberspace

This site for the new Science of Gravity observations it's L I G O!

Monster black hole wakes up after 26 years
Posted on 26 June 2015 by Astronomy Now

This animation show the patch of the sky where the black-hole binary system V404 Cygni is located,
as observed with the IBIS instrument on ESA’s Integral gamma-ray observatory. Before the outburst on 19 May 2015:
V404 Cygni is not present, and its position is marked with a cross. After the outburst on 18 June 2015:
V404 Cygni is the brightest source in the field. The two sources Cygnus X-1 and Cygnus X-3, present in both images,
are some of the brightest objects in the X-ray sky. Other transient sources are also present in both images,
highlighting the great variability of the high-energy sky. Image credits: Carlo Ferrigno,
Integral Science Data Centre, Geneva, Switzerland. AN animation by Ade Ashford.

Hubble finds evidence of galaxy star birth regulated by black hole fountain

Astronomers have uncovered a unique process for how the universe's largest elliptical galaxies continue making stars
long after their peak years of star birth. NASA's Hubble Space Telescope's exquisite high resolution and ultraviolet-light
sensitivity allowed the astronomers to see brilliant knots of hot blue stars forming along the jets of active black holes
found in the centers of giant elliptical galaxies. Combining Hubble data with observations from a suite of ground-based and space telescopes,
two independent teams found that the black hole, jets, and newborn stars are all parts of a self-regulating cycle. High-energy jets
shooting from the black hole heat a halo of surrounding gas, controlling the rate at which the gas cools and falls into the galaxy.

This sample of galaxies, as seen by Hubble, shows chains of star formation in ultraviolet light.
This star formation in each galaxy is a product of the action of the jets from a central black hole
that controls infalling gas from the galaxy's halo.
NASA/ESA/G. Tremblay (Yale Univ.)/R. Mittal (Rochester Institute of Technology
and Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics)

1 Apr , 2016 by Evan Gough

Andromeda's spinning neutron star. Though astronomers think there are over 100 million of these
objects in the Milky Way, this is the first one found in Andromeda.
Image: ESA/XMM Newton.

Larget Cosmic Object Known as of April, 2016

Astronomers have discovered the largest known structure in the universe, a clump of active galactic cores
that stretch 4 billion light-years from end to end. The structure is a light quasar group (LQG),
a collection of extremely luminous Galactic Nulcei powered by supermassive central black holes.

Astronomers Witness Birth of Massive Cluster Galaxy

B.H.C. Emonts et al found that the Spiderweb, a massive galaxy in the center of a distant protocluster, is forming from a large reservoir of molecular gas. In this artist’s conception of the protocluster, the protogalaxies are shown in white and pink, and the blue indicates the location of the carbon monoxide gas. Image credit: M. Kornmesser / ESO.

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This section for research in Cosmology

Grand Challenge Cosmology Consortium: Large super computer
simulations of structure formation in the Universe

Scale of the Universe From the smallest to the largest of the Universe!!!

A new cosmology research site Cosmo!!!

A new site for Cosmology information

Here is an online Astronomy course like Khan Academy!

And Youtube companion

This site for A selection of Hubble site Videos

Milky Way galaxy finds home in the Laniakea Super-cluster

September 3, 2014 4:08 PM EDT - Galaxy superclusters are the biggest structures in the universe.
Researchers at the University of Hawaii at Manoa discovered a new technique that maps the universe by redrawing boundaries.
Our home supercluster is named Laniakea, which means �immeasurable heaven� in Hawaiian

Simulation: Most detailed simulation of our Universe

How do you show off 13 billion years of cosmic growth?
One way that astronomers can figure that out is through visualizations
� such as this one from the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, called Illustris.
Billed as the most detailed computer simulation ever of the universe (done on a fast supercomputer),
you can slowly see how galaxies come alight and the structure of the universe grows.
While the pictures are pretty to look at, the Kavli Foundation also argues this is good for science.

A simulation of large-scale structure formation

Study of structure formation in the Universe is an area of forefront research in astrophysics.
The early evolution, when the seed fluctuations are small, can be calculated analitycally on a piece of paper
without the help of large supercomputers. As the fluctuations grow in their amplitude,
the evolution becomes too complex and theorists have to use computers to follow the subsequent evolution.

A grand Challenge

What came first? Black Holes or Galaxies?

An Animation of the local Galaxy Group

NASA | RXTE Satellite Catches the Beat of a Midsize Black Hole

Black Holes and Worm Holes

Uploaded on May 3, 2009 a short video about black holes and worm holes taken from a show called the universe. watch their other eposite about planets, galaxies and ofcourse the rest of univeres Category Education License Standard YouTube License

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Gravity Waves


See also my section on the Lisa Gravitional Observatory pathfinder:


What do gravitational waves do?

But what do gravitational waves do? For that, let us look at a simplified, entirely hypothetical situation.
(The following are variations on images and animations originally published here on Einstein Online.)
Consider particles drifting in space, far from any sources of gravity. Imagine that the particles (red)
are arranged in a circle around a center (marked in black): If a simple gravitational wave were to pass through this image, coming directly at the reader,
distances between these particles would change rhythmically as follows:

Note the distinctive pattern: When the circle is stretched in the vertical direction,
it is compressed in the horizontal direction, and vice versa. That’s typical for gravitational waves (“quadrupole distortion”). It’s important to keep in mind that this animation, and the ones that will follow,
exaggerate the gravitational wave’s effect quite considerably.

Gravitational waves moving through space

Just remember that neither the lines nor the whitish surface is physical. On the contrary,
if we want the particles to be maximally susceptible to the effect of the gravitational wave,
we should make sure they are truly floating freely, and certainly they shouldn’t be linked in any way!

As you can see, the wave is propagating through space. For instance, the point where the vertical distances
within the circle of particles is maximal is moving towards the observer. The wave nature can be seen even more clearly
if we look at this cylinder directly from the side:

As you can see, the wave is propagating through space. For instance, the point where the vertical distances
within the circle of particles is maximal is moving towards the observer.
The wave nature can be seen even more clearly if we look at this cylinder directly from the side:

Objects in orbit

The simplest situation that produces gravitational waves in the cosmos is almost ubiquitous:
two or more objects orbiting around each other under their own gravity.
The waves they generate are reminiscent to a very slow mixer in the middle of a pool of water:
This is not something you would see, of course. The wave that is pictured here represents the strength
of the minute changes in distance that would be caused by the gravitational wave, just as we’ve seen in
Gravitational waves and how they distort space.
The animation is courtesy of Sascha Husa of the Universitat de les Illes Balears.

Gravitational Waves Discovered: A New Window on the Universe

illustration of Markarian 231, a binary black hole 1.3 billion light years from Earth.
Their collision generated the first gravitational waves we've ever detected.
Image: NASA

Published on Oct 20, 2015 What happens when two black holes collide? This extreme scenario likely occurs in the centers
of some merging galaxies and multiple star systems. The featured video shows a computer animation of the final
stages of such a merger, while highlighting the gravitational lensing effects that would appear on a background starfield.
The black regions indicate the event horizons of the dynamic duo, while a surrounding ring of shifting background stars
indicates the position of their combined Einstein ring. All background stars not only have images visible outside of
this Einstein ring, but also have one or more companion images visible on the inside. Eventually the two black holes coalesce.
The end stages of such a merger may provide a strong and predictable blast of gravitational radiation, a much sought after form of
radiation different than light that has never yet been directly observed. Virtues Inherited, Vices Passed On by Chris Zabriskie is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution license ( Source: Artist: When Black Holes Collide Video Credit & Copyright: Simulating Extreme Spacetimes Collaboration Category Science & Technology License Creative Commons Attribution license (reuse allowed) Remix this video

Infographic: What made Gravitional waves?

Nature News, March 23, 2016, doi:10.1038/531428a Source: Ref. [1]/Nik Spencer/Nature But the Event also marks the start of a long-promised era of gravitational-wave astronomy. Detailed analysis of the signal
has already yielded insights into the nature of the black holes that merged, and how they formed.
With more events such as these—the LIGO team is analysing several other candidate events captured during the detectors'
four-month run, which ended in January—researchers will be able to classify and understand the origins of black holes,
just as they are doing with stars.

How do we observe Gravitational Waves?

The Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO)facility in Livingston, Louisiana.
The other facility is located in Hanford, Washington.
Image: LIGO

Interferometric gravitational wave detectors: the set-up

Light is sent into the detector from the (laser) light source LS to the beamsplitter B which,
true to its name, sends half of the light on to the mirror M1 and lets the other half through to the mirror M2.
At M1 and M2, respectively, the light is reflected back to the beam splitter. There, the light arriving from M1 (or M2)
is split again, with half going towards the light detector LD, the other half back in the direction of the light source LS.
We will ignore the latter half and pretend, for the sake of our simplified explanation, that all the light reaching B
from M1 or M2 goes on to the light detector LD.

Interferometric gravitational wave detectors: Operation

Light starts at the light source to the left. Light that has left the source together, travels together
(so green and red pulses are side by side) until the beam splitter. The beam splitter then sends the green pulses on
their upward journey and lets the red pulses pass on their way towards the mirror on the right.
All the particles that arrive back at the beamsplitter after reflection at M1 or M2. At the beamsplitter,
they are directed towards the light detector at the bottom. In this setup, the horizontal arm is slightly longer than the vertical arm. Red particles have to cover some extra distance.
That is why they arrive at the detector a bit later, and we get an alternating rhythm: green, red, green, red, with equal distances in between.
This will become important later on.

Here is a diagram, a kind of registration strip, which shows the arrival times for red and green pulses at the light detector
(time is measured in “animation frames”): The pattern is clear: red and green pulses arrive evenly spaced, one after the other.

Interferometric gravitational wave detectors: Detection

Next, let’s switch on our standard gravitational wave (exaggerated, passing through the screen towards you, and so on). Here is the result: We have trained our camera on the beamsplitter (so in our image, the beamsplitter doesn’t move). We ignore any slight changes in distance
between beamsplitter and light source/light detector. Instead, we focus on the mirrors M1 and M2, which change their distance from the beamsplitter
just as we would expect from the earlier animations.

Look at the way the pulses arrive at our light detector: sometimes red and green are almost evenly spaced,
sometimes they close together. That is caused by the gravitational wave. Without the wave, we had strict regularity.

Epic Gravitational Wave Detection: How Scientists Did It

To spot gravitational waves directly for the first time ever, scientists had to measure a
distance change 1,000 times smaller than the width of a proton.

This Is What Gravitational Waves Sound Like

Published on Feb 11, 2016 The National Science Foundation (NSF) has announced the detection of gravitational waves by the
Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO), a pair of ground-based observatories in Hanford, Washington,
and Livingston, Louisiana. Albert Einstein predicted the existence of gravitational waves in his general theory of relativity a century ago,
and scientists have been attempting to detect them for 50 years. Einstein pictured these waves as ripples in the fabric of space-time
produced by massive, accelerating bodies, such as black holes orbiting each other. Scientists are interested in observing and
characterizing these waves to learn more about the sources producing them and about gravity itself. The LIGO detections represent a much-awaited first step toward opening a whole new branch of astrophysics.
Nearly everything we know about the universe comes from detecting and analyzing light in all its forms across the electromagnetic spectrum
– radio, infrared, visible, ultraviolet, X-rays and gamma rays. The study of gravitational waves opens a new window on the universe,
one that scientists expect will provide key information that will complement what we can learn through electromagnetic radiation.
Just as in other areas of astronomy, astronomers need both ground-based and space-based observatories to take full advantage of this new window.
LIGO is sensitive to gravitational waves within the range of 10 to 1,000 cycles per second (10 to 1,000 Hz).
A space-based system would be able to detect waves at much lower frequencies, from 0.0001 to 0.1 Hz, and detect different types of sources
Category Science & Technology License Standard YouTube License

Published on Feb 11, 2016 After a decades-long quest, The MIT-Caltech collaboration LIGO Laboratories has detected gravitational waves,
opening a new era in our exploration of the universe. Read more: Produced by MIT Video Productions and MIT News Office Producer/Editor: Bill Lattanzi Footage courtesy of: Hans Peter Bischof; California Institute of Technology; Jet Propulsion Laboratory; LIGO,
A Passion for Understanding, by Kai Staats; MIT; National Science Foundation; Roger Smith; Virginia Trimble, widow of
Joseph Weber; Wikipedia Commons Category Science & Technology License Standard YouTube License


An artist's impression of a Gamma Ray Burst. Credit:

Published on Feb 11, 2016 ESA is thrilled to learn that gravitational waves have been detected, and is looking forward to starting
its mission to test technologies that could extend the study of these exotic waves to space. Gravitational waves
are elusive no more: an exciting breakthrough that has been 100 years in the making. In November 1915, Albert Einstein
presented his general theory of relativity, introducing a dramatic change of perspective in the physical understanding
of one of the four fundamental interactions of nature: gravity. This theory describes gravity as the way matter interacts with the flexible
‘spacetime’ it is embedded in. Massive bodies deform spacetime, changing its curvature as they move. When accelerated,
massive bodies produce tiny fluctuations in the fabric of spacetime – gravitational waves – which were first predicted
in a further study published by Einstein in 1918. These minuscule cosmic perturbations have finally been revealed, after almost
a century of theoretical investigations and experimental searches. The discovery was announced today by scientists from the
Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) collaboration. LIGO comprises two gravitational wave detectors in
Livingston, Louisiana and Hanford, Washington, USA, and involves over a thousand scientists from across the world.
The experiment uses laser beams to monitor two perpendicular arms, each extending 4 km, to look for tiny changes in their
length that might be caused by passing gravitational waves. Recently upgraded to become Advanced LIGO, the experiment
obtained this historic result during the first observation run in the new configuration, which collected data between
September 2015 and January 2016. The recorded signal is very strong, and it appears to come from a pair of coalescing
black holes about 1.3 billion light-years away. The two monstrous bodies, with masses equivalent to 36 and 29 times the mass of the Sun,
respectively, merged to form a single, even more gigantic black hole of 62 solar masses, releasing the remaining 3 solar masses
in gravitational waves. Like light, gravitational waves also span a broad spectrum of frequencies, and different astronomical objects
are expected to emit these waves all across the spectrum. Ground-based experiments like LIGO are sensitive to high-frequency waves,
like those coming from coalescing pairs of black holes or neutron stars, with frequencies of 10–1000 Hz.
To detect gravitational waves with lower frequencies, such as those from the merging of supermassive black holes
at the centre of massive galaxies, scientists need to investigate changes in length of much longer arms –
about one million kilometres. This can only be achieved in space, using laser beams to monitor the distance between
three freely falling masses separated by much larger distances than can be achieved on Earth. Category Science & Technology License Standard YouTube License

Gravitational Waves 101: How to Hear the Universe The Good Stuff

Published on Jun 14, 2016 In 2015 scientists working at the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave observatory, or LIGO,
detected gravitational waves for the first time. But how did they do it? What is a gravitational wave?
And why is confirming something that Albert Einstein predicted a hundred years ago one of the greatest
scientific achievements of the past century? HUGE Thanks to the LIGO team and the National Science Foundation for funding amazing projects like LIGO The University of Chicago LIGO group is comprised of Daniel Holz, Ben Farr, Hsin-Yu Chen, and Zoheyr Doctor, and they all contributed to the results described in this video. ►Subscribe: : ►Let us know what you think of our show! The Good stuff patreon ►Follow us on Twitter: ►Follow us on instagram: goodstuffshow ►Like us on facebook Digital street team: Sign up for our mailing list: The Good Stuff is a proud member of the PBS Digital Studios family

Cosmic Clocks Keep Time in the Search for Gravitational Waves
By Calla Cofield, Staff Writer | August 1, 2016 07:36am ET

The Arecibo Observatory is used by Nanograv, a collaboration using pulsars to search for gravitational waves. Credit: Arecibo Observatory/NSF

This illustration shows how a gravitational wave can interrupt the arrival time of a pulsar's light.
The areas of high and low pressure in the wave (shown in red and blue) change the space between the Earth and the pulsar.
Credit: B. Saxton (NRAO/AUI/NSF)

This artist's illustration shows how a Pulsar Timing Array uses multiple pulsars
to detect the passing of a gravitational wave. An interruption in the arrival time of the
pulsar's light flashes could be caused by multiple variables; once scientists have accounted for all those variables,
they can look for changes caused by a gravitational wave. The arrival time should change for multiple pulsars in the same region of the sky. Credit: David Champion

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The Smith Cloud

HubbleSite - NewsCenter - Monstrous Cloud Boomerangs Back to Our Galaxy (01/28/2016)

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Take equal parts 1) supernova, 2) Hubble Space Telescope, and 3) Herschel infrared observatory.
Mix well. What do you get? Purple (and pink) majesty.

This video is based on an article I wrote about this observation. And yeah, you want to go take a look;
the high-res picture is pretty phenomenal.
I love this image of the Crab Nebula, if only because the colors are almost electric.
But also because this has been an intensely scrutinized object; people have dedicated their careers to it,
and lots of astronomers have done at least some work on it. I have too; I did a bit of coding for a Hubble observation years ago


Observation sequences of M1, showing the expansion of shock waves emanating from the Pulsar interacting
with the surrounding nebula. Charndra X-Rays (left), Hubble Visible light (right).
(Credit: NASA, JPL-Caltech)

As It Turns Out, We Really Are All Starstuff by JASON MAJOR on MARCH 23, 2015

This is a mosaic image, one of the largest ever taken by NASA's Hubble Space Telescope of the Crab Nebula,
a six-light-year-wide expanding remnant of a star's supernova explosion. Japanese and Chinese astronomers recorded
this violent event nearly 1,000 years ago in 1054, as did, almost certainly, Native Americans.
The orange filaments are the tattered remains of the star and consist mostly of hydrogen. The rapidly spinning neutron star
embedded in the center of the nebula is the dynamo powering the nebula's eerie interior bluish glow.
The blue light comes from electrons whirling at nearly the speed of light around magnetic field lines from the neutron star.
The neutron star, like a lighthouse, ejects twin beams of radiation that appear to pulse 30 times a second due to the neutron star's rotation.
A neutron star is the crushed ultra-dense core of the exploded star. The Crab Nebula derived its name from its appearance in a drawing made by Irish astronomer Lord Rosse in 1844,
using a 36-inch telescope. When viewed by Hubble, as well as by large ground-based telescopes
such as the European Southern Observatory's Very Large Telescope, the Crab Nebula takes on a more detailed appearance
that yields clues into the spectacular demise of a star, 6,500 light-years away.
The newly composed image was assembled from 24 individual Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 exposures
taken in October 1999, January 2000, and December 2000. The colors in the image indicate the different elements
that were expelled during the explosion. Blue in the filaments in the outer part of the nebula represents neutral oxygen,
green is singly-ionized sulfur, and red indicates doubly-ionized oxygen.
Credit: NASA, ESA, J. Hester and A. Loll (Arizona State University)

My animation of the Crab Nebula,
  • starting with the shortest wavelengths (x-rays - blue)
  • and progressing through the visible spectrum (green)
  • to radio frequencies (beyond infrared).
The driving power here obviously looks like an electric motor.


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This section for heritage projects

Here is Harvard's digital scan of historical glass plates

And here is Europe's Spectra Heritage project

And here is Sky

ANOTHER project is The Uccle Direct Astronomical Archive Centre

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This section for images from space

Here is Dark roasted blend
Of incredibel space imagery

Searchable database of Astronomical images: Astronomical Image Library

Recent Transits of VENUS

Here is a picture of the June 8, 2004 Transit of Venus

And here is an animated picture of the venus transit of 06/08/2004

Ansd an animation of the 06/05/2012 Transit of Venus

An Animation

time lapse night at the texas sky party...

Galactic Center of Milky Way Rises over Texas Star Party from William Castleman on Vimeo.

another animation: COMET Lemmon

Animation of Comet 2012 F6 Lemmon as seen from NASA�s STEREO Ahead spacecraft. (Credit: NASA/GSFC; animation created by Robert Kaufman). An icy interloper was in the sights of a NASA spacecraft this past weekend. Comet 2012 F6 Lemmon passed through the field of view of NASA?s HI2A camera as seen from its solar observing STEREO Ahead spacecraft.
As seen in the animation above put together by Robert Kaufman, Comet Lemmon is now displaying a fine ion and dust tail as it sweeps back
out of the inner solar system on its 10,750 year plus orbit.


Radar images of asteroid 1998 QE2 and its satellite on June 7.
 Each frame in the animation is a sum of 4 images, spaced apart by about 10 minutes.
 (Arecibo Observatory/NASA/Ellen Howell)

On the last day of May 2013 asteroid 1998 QE2 passed relatively closely by our planet,
coming within 6 million kilometers� about 15 times the distance to the Moon.
 While there was never any chance of an impact by the 3 km-wide asteroid and its
 surprise 750 meter satellite, astronomers didn�t miss out on the chance to observe
 the visiting duo as they soared past as it was a prime opportunity to
 learn more about two unfamiliar members of the Solar System.

By bouncing radar waves off 1998 QE2 from the giant dish at the Arecibo Observatory in
 Puerto Rico, researchers were able to construct visible images of the asteroid and its
 ocean-liner-sized moon, as well as obtain spectrum data from NASA�s infrared telescope in Hawaii.
 What they discovered was quite surprising: QE2 is nothing like any asteroid ever seen near Earth.

Asteroid 2013-mz5

Asteroid 2013 MZ5 as seen by the University of Hawaii�s PanSTARR-1 telescope. Credit: PS-1/UH That pale white dot up there? No. 10,000 in a list of near-Earth objects. This rock, 2013 MZ5, was discovered June 18. It is 1,000 feet (300 meters) across and will not come anywhere near to threatening Earth, NASA assures us. But what else is out there? The agency still hasn�t found every asteroid or comet that could come by Earth. To be sure, however, it�s really trying. But is there more NASA and other agencies can do to search? Tell us in the comments.

News Flash: Asteroid Flying Past Earth Today Has Mini-Moon!
by BOB KING on JANUARY 26, 2015

This animation, created from 20 individual radar images, clearly show the rough outline of 2004 BL86 and its newly-discovered moon.
> Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech
Wonderful news! Asteroid 2004 BL86, which passed closest to Earth today at a distance of 750,000 miles (1.2 million km),
has a companion moon. Scientists working with NASA�s 230-foot-wide (70-meter) Deep Space Network antenna at Goldstone,
California, have released the first radar images of the asteroid which show the tiny object in orbit about the main body.

Comet ISON MAY 8, 2013

Comet ISON viewed by NASA's Hubble Space Telescope. Hubble made eight exposures over a span
of about 43 minutes on May 8, 2013 showing the comet's movement against the field of fixed stars.
Photo credit: NASA, ESA, and the Hubble Heritage Team (STScI/AURA)

On May 8, the Hubble Space Telescope snapped a series of short exposures of Comet ISON.
Cut together, these frames capture ISON as it hurtles into the inner solar system.

Weird X-Rays: What Happens When Eta Carinae�s Massive Stars Get Close?

Eta Carinae, one of the most massive stars known. Image credit: NASA
While the stars appear unchanging when you take a quick look at the night sky,
there is so much variability out there that astronomers will be busy forever. One prominent example is Eta Carinae,
a star system that erupted in the 19th century for about 20 years, becoming one of the brightest stars you could see in the night sky.
It�s so volatile that it�s a high candidate for a supernova.
by Elizabeth Howell on August 27, 2014

Here is NASA's new Space Image library NASA

another gallery of space images Nasa's spaceflight gallery

Click here for a great online Gallery of astro photos!!!!

Astronomical Multimedia Cosmos in a Computer

This site for a large list of Astronomy Links

Here is another Another set of Astro Links

This is a great site it's!!!

This site for monthly Skymaps!!!!!

The Helix Nebula from the WISE TELESCOPE

The Helix nebula is visible in the center of this image,
surrounded by tracks of asteroids that are much closer to Earth (yellow dots).
Click on the image to see them. The streaks you see are from satellites or cosmic rays.
Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/UCLA

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This section for MARS

Here is NASA's site for real time information From the MARS GLOBAL SURVEYOR

This is NASA's Site for real time SOHO Pictures
The Planet Mars: A History of Observation and Discovery The Explore Mars Site

Here is NASA's Center for Mars Exploration

Another site is The Mars today Global Circulation Model Group

Here is a news site on Mars

Here is the European site for It's Mars Express Site

For the U.S. it's the 2001 Mars Odyssey

And for the Japanese Mission The Japanese Nozomi Spacecraft

The Planetary society

The planetary society's Main Website

Here is a Home page of MERDAT 2007 Home of Mars Rover data display color and Stero image tool

here is the website for Lowell's legacy Lowell's Arizona Obsevatory's website

Here are webcams of (courtesey of the Planetary Society) Sundials on Mars on the Mars Rovers

Here is the companion Earth dial project

And another companion site Unmanned Spaceflight

Here is Mars

Click here for Mars Planet finder in the sky

I posted my first attempts at Mars webcam photography. It is in the files section, The two photos were taken last Saturday through my Meade LX-90 SCT using a Toucam Pro webcam with no filters.

Just a reminder that on Aug 27, and Sep 2, 3 and 4 (no earlier than 19:30 UT), live images of Mars taken with a video camera connected to Schiaparelli's 8" Merz refractor will be webcast on the Internet. Web cam images of mars

Mars regularly comes within 35 million miles of the earth.See This opposition of Mars is so favorable because it happens to occur only 2 days before Mars reaches perihelion, not because of changes in the planets' orbits.

This site collects images taken by people all around the world Here is . 2003 Mars image viewer (Mars Previewer II

Here is another mars viewer It's Cal Sky

Here is It's Marswatch from Rowan University In New Jersey!

Mars as seen from the Earth:(Computer simulation from NASA)

Looking down on the sun Mars system(Computer simulation from NASA)

Earth as seen from Odyssey(Computer simulation from NASA)

Here is Gigapan's zoomable view of MARS's seurface


Published on Oct 13, 2014 Three simulations looking at the historic passage of comet A1 Siding Springs past Mars on Oct 19th, 2014 from different astronomical perspectives.

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This section for Moon and solar system

This section for near Earth Objects

Asteroid 2012 DA14

Who knew asteroids could be so beautiful and mesmerizing?
In 2008, a group of astronomers led by Alex Parker did a study of the size distribution of asteroid families
using data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Asteroid families often have distinctive optical colors, the team said,
and they were able to offer an improved way to separate out the family members into their colors. This resultant animation
put together just this week by Parker shows the orbital motions of over 100,000 asteroids, with colors illustrating the compositional
diversity and relative sizes of the asteroids.
Read more:

Surprise! Fireballs Light up the Radio Sky, Hinting at Unexplored Physics
by Shannon Hall on June 2, 2014

A series of All-Sky (fish eye) images showing the plasma trail left by a fireball,
which extends 92 degrees across the northern half of the sky. These images are 5 second snapshots
captured at 37.8 MHz with the LWA1 radio telescope. The bright steady sources (Cygnus A, Cassiopeia A, the galactic plane, etc)
have been removed using image subtraction. Image Credit: Gregory Taylor (University of New Mexico)

Here is Nasa's Near Earth Orbital Center at JPL!!!

Click here for Near Earth Orbiter news

HEre is NASA's spaceflight H O M E P A G E

Here is the web page for Earth's Asteroid 2002 aa29 Earth co-orbiter

This site for USGS Realtime Earth Geomagnectic data

And here for Nasa's earth observatory

Click here for Data for
observiving the International Space Station

This is the main site USGS Geomag Main site

AND here is USGS Geomag links site

Another one is The Minor Planet Center

Looking for meteors????? North American Meteor Network

Looking for asteroids? Click here!

Another place for asteriods is Minor Planet Observer

Yet another site is The Minor Planet Center!

Here is Harvard's Minor Planet Checker.....

Another site is The NEO Program

Click here for The Fairborn Observatory

Related is NASA's Space weather site


The Current Phase of the MOON


Phases of the Moon 2014

Large map of the near side of the Moon

Click here To view the Moon from the earth!

Click here for View the earth from the Moon!!!!

This site lists out phases of the moon for you! Phases of the moon!

This site for predictions for Lunar rays!!!

This is the Main Lunar occultstions web page
Moon, Lunar Videos Using Telescope and Webcam. - For more amazing video clips, click here

Click here for a Moving HDTV from the Japanese probe

Click here for The Lunar orbiter web site

This page for Lunar exploration facts and enigmas!!

Click here for the Marshall Space Flight Center for Lunar Impact Monitoring
-- And if you wish to participate, there are links in the right-hand menu bar to tell you how to help.

View the north pole of the Moon the lunar reconnassiance zoom map of the North lunar pole

Digital orreries

The real Orbits of the solar SYSTEM

This is what the solar system looks like right now!Click here for a
Digital Orrery of the solar system

Yet another Digital orrery!

Click here for a musical and Pictorial look at the universe! It's SOMEWHERE INTIME!!!!!!

Here is the Home page of

This NASA site simulates views of the Solar System JPL'S Solar System Simulator

Another Nasa simulation! Simulate URANAUS


NASA's NASA's OPEN Source lab

Here is NASA's EarthObservatory NASAS' earth observatory main page

This site educates and simulates the Analemma - The "Equation of Time"

Click here for Nine


Animation of the triple transit of October 13, 2013

These show the multiple impact marks on Jupiter's clouds left by Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9,
and is what was apparent a few days after the ones in my previous post on the first impacts.
The info on these frames is below.
Jason H. originally shared to Astronomy GIF Animations (Comet GIF's):
Impact marks on Jupiter from Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9
- I made this GIF from frames shot by the Hubble Space Telescope
in different color filters back in 1994.
I converted the frames from FITS format and processed them a little for this animation.

this site for kid's Exploration of the solar system!

HERE IS Lunar Picture of the day!

CalSKY has all the moon and planet info Cal!!!!

The Naval Observatry site has the sun and moon data ,along with times for twilight. It has dates and times for the principal phases of the moon for the years 1700-2035.

Lunar apogee and perigee date and distance, plus dates and times for new and full moon for any year. Requires that javascript be enabled.

Click here for Satelitte views of the EARTH!

This is A high resolution picture of an asteroid

Click here for The Nine Planets data base

This site for Asteroid occultations!!!

Here is a site for To assist for looking for the International Space station

This section for The June 2004 Transit of Venus

Here is NASA's Website for the transit of Venus: FROM NASA

Click here for information on the first transit of venus since December 6, 1882 The transit of venus, June 8, 2004

A new IPAD app featuring Mercury that has the latest on the mission, pictures, etc.

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Click here for The latest from Cassini

Here is carolyn Porco's talk on the saturn system

Saturn from Cassini

Saturn and its rings, as seen from above the planet by the Cassini spacecraft. Credit: NASA/JPL/Space Science Institute. Assembled by Gordan Ugarkovic. So what did NASA do during the US government shutdown? You can�t just turn off spacecraft that are operating millions of miles away, so missions like the Mars rovers and the Cassini spacecraft at Saturn continued to send back images to Earth during the 16 days that most of NASA wasn�t up and running like usual. On October 10, 2013, as Cassini flew high above the planet�s equatorial plane, the spacecraft�s camera took 36 images of Saturn, a dozen each using the various red, green, and blue filters used to create color images. The images were transferred back to Earth and put on the Cassini raw images page. Gordon Ugarkovic from Croatia, and a member of the image editing wizards at, grabbed the raw files, processed them, then assembled the images into this jaw-dropping mosaic.

Saturn's north pole!!!!!

Updated on 12-04-2013

Using data from the Cassini spacecraft, NASA has created the first high-resolution
film of Saturn's mysterious hexagonal-shaped jet stream which covers the planet's North Pole.
The massive storm spans a stunning 20,000 miles and features winds which have been measured at 200 mph.
However, the reason for the odd hexagonal shape of the formation continues to baffle astronomers

Polar Cyclones on Saturn Form From Smaller Storms

In a paper published in the journal Nature Geoscience (June 15th 2015), atmospheric scientists at MIT have proposed a mechanism
for Saturn’s polar cyclones.
Over time, small, short-lived thunderstorms across the planet are thought to build up angular momentum (or spin) within the atmosphere,
ultimately stirring up a long-lasting vortex at the poles.
Simulations carried out by Morgan O’Neill and colleagues at MIT’s Department of Earth, Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences (EAPS)
show that small isolated thunderstorms pull material in Saturn's atmosphere towards the poles, accumulating atmospheric energy which
then generates a much larger, long-lasting polar cyclone.
The research concludes that whether or not a polar cyclone forms depends on the total energy within a planet’s atmosphere,
and the average size of its thunderstorms, relative to the size of the planet. Larger thunderstorms are more likely to ultimately create the north polar cyclone that has been observed by NASA's Cassini spacecraft orbiting Saturn. " Cassini Image Credit : NASA/JPL-Caltech/Space Science Institute.

Small thunderstorms may add up to massive cyclones on Saturn
New model may predict cyclone activity on other planets.
Jennifer Chu | MIT News Office
June 15, 2015

For the last decade, astronomers have observed curious “hotspots” on Saturn’s poles.
In 2008, NASA’s Cassini spacecraft beamed back close-up images of these hotspots, revealing them to be immense cyclones,
each as wide as the Earth. Scientists estimate that Saturn’s cyclones may whip up 300 mph winds, and likely have been churning for years.

Here are some images from The Nordic Optical Telescope (NOT) in the canary islands

This Click here for a report on Is there a dark star in our solar system?

Click here for The New Horizons project exploring the Kuiper Belt

Current TypoGraphic Map of Titan
Created by multiple passes over Titan by the cassini mission


To create the first global, topographic map of Saturn's moon Titan,
scientists analyzed data from NASA's Cassini spacecraft and a mathematical process called splining.
This method effectively uses smooth curved surfaces to "join" the areas between grids of existing
topography profiles obtained by Cassini's radar instrument. In the upper panel of this graphic, gold colors
show where radar images have been obtained over almost half of Titan's surface.
Image credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/ASI/JHUAPL/Cornell/Weizmann

Titan's Lakes

This colorized mosaic from NASA's Cassini mission shows the most complete view yet of Titan's northern land of lakes and seas.
Saturn's moon Titan is the only world in our solar system other than Earth that has stable liquid on its surface.
The liquid in Titan's lakes and seas is mostly methane and ethane.

Saturn's Moon Iapatus Occults a star!!

Just passing by: an animation of Iapetus briefly blocking a bright star in the constellation Orion.
(NASA/JPL-Caltech/SSI. Assembled by Jason Major.) It�s a cosmic cover-up! No, don�t put your tinfoil* hats on, this isn�t a conspiracy � it�s just Saturn�s moon Iapetus
drifting in front of the bright star Gamma Orionis (aka Bellatrix) captured on Cassini�s narrow-angle camera on August 10, 2013.
Such an event is called an occultation, a term used in astronomy whenever light from one object is blocked by another
� specifically when something visually larger moves in front of something apparently smaller.
(The word occult means to hide or conceal� nothing mystical implied!)

From NASA It's the cassini Mission webpage

NASA has a website Spaceplace, your place to explore Saturn

Keck Observatory Titan Monitoring Project

NASA's composite video OF TITAN

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This section for Astronomical articles

Another link to Harvard's astronomical article search engine

Harvard University Harvard University

Abstract indices for astrophyshical papers NASA ABSTARCT Search

Google gets some of its data from: NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC)

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The Huygens Principle (Thumbnail)

The Huygens�Fresnel principle (named after Dutch physicist Christiaan Huygens and French physicist Augustin-Jean Fresnel) is a method of analysis applied to problems of wave propagation both in the far-field limit and in near-field diffraction.

    1 History
    2 Mathematical expression of the principle
    3 Huygens' principle and quantum electrodynamics
    4 See also
    5 References
    6 Further reading

Diffraction of a plane wave at a slit whose width is several times the wavelength
Diffraction of a plane wave when the slit width equals the wavelength

In 1678, Huygens[1] proposed that every point to which a luminous disturbance reaches becomes a source of a spherical wave; the sum of these secondary waves determines the form of the wave at any subsequent time. He assumed that the secondary waves travelled only in the "forward" direction and it is not explained in the theory why this is the case. He was able to provide a qualitative explanation of linear and spherical wave propagation, and to derive the laws of reflection and refraction using this principle, but could not explain the deviations from rectilinear propagation which occur when light encounters edges, apertures and screens, commonly known as diffraction effects.[2]

In 1816, Fresnel[3] showed that Huygens' principle, together with his own principle of interference could explain both the rectilinear propagation of light and also diffraction effects. To obtain agreement with experimental results, he had to include additional arbitrary assumptions about the phase and amplitude of the secondary waves, and also an obliquity factor. These assumptions have no obvious physical foundation but led to predictions which agreed with many experimental observations, including the Arago spot.

Poisson was a member of the French Academy which reviewed Fresnel's work.[4] He used Fresnel's theory to predict that a bright spot will appear in the center of the shadow of a small disc and deduced from this that the theory was incorrect. However, Arago, another member of the committee, performed the experiment and showed that the prediction was correct. (Lisle had actually observed this fifty years earlier.[2]) This was one of the investigations which led to the victory of the wave theory of light over the then predominant corpuscular theory.

The Huygens�Fresnel principle provides a good basis for understanding and predicting the wave propagation of light. However, this article[5] provides an interesting discussion of the limitations of the principle and also of different scientists' views as to whether it is an accurate representation of reality or whether "Huygens' principle actually does give the right answer but for the wrong reasons".

Kirchhoff's diffraction formula provides a rigorous mathematical foundation for diffraction, based on the wave equation. The arbitrary assumptions made by Fresnel to arrive at the Huygens�Fresnel equation emerge automatically from the mathematics in this derivation.[6]

A simple example of the operation of the principle can be seen when two rooms are connected by an open doorway and a sound is produced in a remote corner of one of them. A person in the other room will hear the sound as if it originated at the doorway. As far as the second room is concerned, the vibrating air in the doorway is the source of the sound.
Mathematical expression of the principle
Geometric arrangement for Fresnel's calculation

Consider the case of a point source located at a point P0, vibrating at a frequency f. The disturbance may be described by a complex variable U0 known as the complex amplitude. It produces a spherical wave with wavelength ?, wavenumber k = 2p/?. The complex amplitude of the primary wave at the point Q located at a distance r0 from P0 is given by

    U(r_0) = \frac {U_0 e^{ikr_0}}{r_0}

since the magnitude decreases in inverse proportion to the distance travelled, and the phase changes as k times the distance travelled.

Using Huygens' theory and the principle of superposition of waves, the complex amplitude at a further point P is found by summing the contributions from each point on the sphere of radius r0. In order to get agreement with experimental results, Fresnel found that the individual contributions from the secondary waves on the sphere had to be multiplied by a constant, i/?, and by an additional inclination factor, K(?). The first assumption means that the secondary waves oscillate at a quarter of a cycle out of phase with respect to the primary wave, and that the magnitude of the secondary waves are in a ratio of 1:? to the primary wave. He also assumed that K(?) had a maximum value when ? = 0, and was equal to zero when ? = p/2. The complex amplitude at P is then given by:

    U(P) = \frac {iU(r_0)}{\lambda} \int_{S} \frac {e^{iks}}{s} K(\chi)\,dS

where S describes the surface of the sphere, and s is the distance between Q and P.

Fresnel used a zone construction method to find approximate values of K for the different zones,[4] which enabled him to make predictions which were in agreement with experimental results.

The various assumptions made by Fresnel emerge automatically in Kirchhoff's diffraction formula,[4] to which the Huygens�Fresnel principle can be considered to be an approximation. Kirchoff gave the following expression for K(?):

    ~K(\chi )= - \frac{i}{2 \lambda}(1+\cos \chi)

This incorporates the quarter cycle phase shift and the reduced magnitude; K has a maximum value at ? = 0 as in the Huygens�Fresnel principle; however, K is not equal to zero at ? = p/2.
Huygens' principle and quantum electrodynamics

Huygens' principle can be seen as a consequence of the isotropy of space - all directions in space are equal. Any disturbance created in a sufficiently small region of isotropic space (or in an isotropic medium) propagates from that region in all radial directions. The waves created by this disturbance, in turn, create disturbances in other regions, and so on. The superposition of all the waves results in the observed pattern of wave propagation.

Isotropy of space is fundamental to quantum electrodynamics (QED) where the wave function of any object propagates along all available unobstructed paths. When integrated along all possible paths, with a phase factor which is proportional to the path length, the interference of the wave-functions correctly predicts observable phenomena.

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This is the

And here for Centauri DREAMS

Stellar Evolution; binary stars; eclipsing binaries JAVA DEMOS

Starlab Demonstration: N-bodySimulations

Here is the Main Astrodigital site

Generate a Starmap for a time and place of your choosing: STARMAP

You can generate a better sky map here The Online Planetarium!

A chart of the Nearest Stars

Caught for the First Time: The Early Flash of an Exploding Star

Published on Mar 21, 2016 The brilliant flash of an exploding star’s shockwave—what astronomers call the “shock breakout” --
is illustrated in this cartoon animation. The animation begins with a view of a red supergiant star that
is 500 times bigger and 20,000 brighter than our sun. When the star’s internal furnace can no longer sustain
nuclear fusion its core to collapses under gravity. A shockwave from the implosion rushes upward through the star’s layers.
The shockwave initially breaks through the star’s visible surface as a series of finger-like plasma jets.
Only 20 minute later the full fury of the shockwave reaches the surface and the doomed star blasts apart as a supernova explosion.
This animation is based on photometric observations made by NASA’s Kepler space telescope.
By closely monitoring the star KSN 2011d, located 1.2 billion light-years away, Kepler caught the onset
of the early flash and subsequent explosion. Credit: NASA Ames, STScI/G. Bacon Category Science & Technology License Standard YouTube License

Did Supernova Explosion Contribute to Earth Mass Extinction? By Mike Wall, Senior Writer | July 11, 2016 09:01am ET

Artist's illustration of the supernova remnant known as 1993J, which came from a double-star system. Credit: NASA, ESA, G. Bacon (STScI) A faraway supernova explosion may have contributed to a minor mass extinction here
on Earth 2.59 million years ago, a new study suggests. Fast-moving, charged particles called cosmic rays that were blasted out by asupernova may have played
a role in the climatic changes that apparently led to a die-off at the end of the Pliocene epoch
and the start of the Pleistocene, researchers said.

White Drawf smash up ignited our Galaxies most recent Supernova

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This section for General Research

THe latest on Supernova 1987a

Astronomers have spotted a new object emerging from the ashes of a recently deceased star. The stellar post-mortem, which is recounted in two new videos, may also solve a mystery surrounding the unexpected shape
of the star's explosive remains, scientists say.

In the second supernova video, the ICRAR scientists show how they may have also solved a long-standing mystery about the
shock wave that is still expanding away from the supernova remnant.
Scientists have observed that one side of the supernova explosion appears brighter than the other.
To figure out why, researchers at ICRAR developed a 3D simulation of the stellar death. They found that
tweaking things in the simulation, like the asymmetry of the explosion and the composition of the gas surrounding the supernova,
changed the outcome and eventually created models that agree with the new observations.

NASA | Colliding Neutron Stars Create Black Hole and Gamma-ray Burst

Uploaded on Apr 7, 2011 Armed with state-of-the-art supercomputer models, scientists have shown that colliding neutron stars
can produce the energetic jet required for a gamma-ray burst. Earlier simulations demonstrated that mergers
could make black holes. Others had shown that the high-speed particle jets needed to make a gamma-ray burst would
continue if placed in the swirling wreckage of a recent merger. Now, the simulations reveal the middle step of the process--how the merging stars' magnetic field organizes itself
into outwardly directed components capable of forming a jet. The Damiana supercomputer at Germany's Max Planck Institute
for Gravitational Physics needed six weeks to reveal the details of a process that unfolds in just 35 thousandths of a second--
less than the blink of an eye. This video is public domain and can be downloaded Like our videos? Subscribe to NASA's Goddard Shorts HD podcast: Or find NASA Goddard Space Flight Center on facebook Or find us on Twitter: Category Science & Technology License Standard YouTube License

Find transits of Of the International Space Station

Discovery of Additional Planets?

A neat website for Information on the night sky

An amatuer effort from around the world night sky network of videos

Another page for Deep sky information

Web page for Space sounds!

Here are infra red images of space Caltech's 2mass gallaery

Here is Caltech's sky survey

Here is a star catalog to help with your observations US NAVY Star Catalog Home Page

A New A New Instrument for the Keck Observatory

A neat mashup To track satellites

Here is a webpage with a real use: It' Online conversion of numerous units to othe units usefull in astro research

Optical definitions Everything you ever wanted to know about optics terminology.

This is a the site for the San diego Supercomputer research center

And here for Volume visulation of the ORion Nebula

And here for The globe at night

And here Hakan's Space Balls

This site for a new look at the Universe New information on the electrical nature of the Universe

Another site for heavenly mapping It's Heavenly

A site for Skymaps it's

Another site for Heavenly information

This Site for the messier objects

This section for GPS information

Click Here for Here's a technical description of the GPS system

And here for This is the positioning system specification

Here's an interesting website that offers some insights into GPS accuracy:

Here are the web pages for University of British Columbia

Here is US Navy Oservotory Data site

looking for eclipses? Then click here for MR. Eclipse Navigation and Ancillary Information Facility (NAIF)

Here is the website for the 100th Annivesery of the THEORY of Relativity

Comet Sub section

On this sub page you can search for comets! Click here for comet search!

Comet Chasing? Check out the sky hound

The Astroleague has COmet page


Video of observing in southwest US!

PINNACLES - Southwest Timelapse Medley from Sunchaser Pictures on Vimeo.

A timelapse medley of sun, storms, and stars over three distinct rock locations in the Southwestern United States.
Footage from Monument Valley, AZ / Trona Pinnacles, CA / Red Rock Canyon, CA.

Shot by Gavin Heffernan ( and Harun Mehmedinovic ( for BBC Earth.
Part of www.SKYGLOWPROJECT.COM - our initiative to protect the night skies and raise awareness of the light pollution.

** The glowing fireball resembling a meteor at 2:02 was actually a giant "honey moon". Trailing effect used by tracking the rotation of the earth's axis over several hours

** Some shots were used this summer for The Rolling Stones ZIP CODE tour:!concerts/c24vq and

Music: "Apollo Rising" by Terry Devine-King
Edited by: Gavin Heffernan

Planetary Formation, Science, Solar System


A new paper says that a Super-Earth may have formed in our Solar System and been swallowed by the Sun.
Image Credit: ESA/Hubble, M. Kornmesser

Formation of Planets in a Protoplanetary Disk

Published on May 17, 2013 The artist conception shows a newly formed star surrounded by a swirling protoplanetary disk of dust and gas.
Debris coalesces to create rocky 'planetesimals' that collide and grow to eventually form planets.
The results of this study show that small planets form around stars with a wide range of heavy element
content suggesting that their existence might be widespread in the galaxy.
Credit: University of Copenhagen/Lars Buchhave Category Science & Technology License Standard YouTube License

To get an idea of Gaia’s long-term promise, recall that we are looking at the galaxy
with Hubble-like precision. We may have more than a billion stars in today’s release,
but 400 million of these are appearing in a catalog for the first time.

Image: An all-sky view of stars in our Galaxy – the Milky Way – and neighbouring galaxies,
based on the first year of observations from ESA’s Gaia satellite, from July 2014 to September 2015.
This map shows the density of stars observed by Gaia in each portion of the sky. Brighter regions indicate denser concentrations of stars,
while darker regions correspond to patches of the sky where fewer stars are observed.
The Milky Way is a spiral galaxy, with most of its stars residing in a disc about 100 000 light-years
across and about 1000 light-years thick. This structure is visible in the sky as the Galactic Plane –
the brightest portion of this image –which runs horizontally and is especially bright at the centre.
Darker regions across the Galactic Plane correspond to dense clouds of interstellar gas and dust that absorb starlight
along the line of sight. Many globular and open clusters – groupings of stars held together by their mutual gravity –
are also sprinkled across the image. Credit: ESA.

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Information on Lagrange points


Published on Aug 26, 2016
There are places in the Solar System where the forces of gravity balance out perfectly. 
Places we can use to position satellites, space telescopes and even colonies to establish our exploration of the Solar System. These are the Lagrange Points. Support us at: More stories at: Follow us on Twitter: @universetoday Follow us on Tumblr: Like us on Facebook: Google+ - Instagram - Team: Fraser Cain - @fcain Jason Harmer - @jasoncharmer Chad Weber - Created by: Fraser Cain and Jason Harmer Edited by: Chad Weber Music: Left Spine Down - “X-Ray

The five Sun-Earth Lagrange points. Credit: NOAA

Sun-Earth Lagrange Points. Credit: Xander89/Wikimedia Commons

Animation showing the relationship between the Lagrangian points (red) of a planet (blue) orbiting a star (yellow), and the gravitational potential in the plane containing the orbit (grey surface with purple contours of equal potential). Credit: cmglee (CC-SA 3.0)

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